Group: Jukka Heikkinen, Timo Kiviniemi, Tuomas Korpilo, Susan Leerink, Paavo Niskala


  • toroidal annulus in an axisymmetric torus is simulated
  • full f → allows significant changes in plasma profiles during simulation
  • collisions are evaluated using a binary collision model → neo-classical physics included
  • kinetic electron and ion species
  • one impurity species can be included
  • analytic neutral model
  • radiation losses can be included
  • direct polarization method is used to solve 3D electrostatic perturbations
  • mesh of the electric field is in quasi-ballooning (almost straight field line) coordinates
  • temperature can be maintained or heated up with background collisions
  • guiding centre equations in straight field line coordinates
  • benchmarked against the Cyclone base case and detailed predictions of neoclassical properties as well as FT–2 experiments

elmfire particle flux


Doctoral dissertations


  • S. Leerink, V.V. Bulanin, A.D. Gurchenko, E.Z. Gusakov, J.A. Heikkinen, S.J. Janhunen, S.I. Lashkul, A.B. Altukhov, L.A. Esipov, M. Yu. Kantor, T.P. Kiviniemi, T. Korpilo, D.V. Kuprienko, and A.V. Petrov, “Multiscale Investigations of Drift-Wave Turbulence and Plasma Flows: Measurements and Total-Distribution-Function Gyrokinetic Simulations”, Physical Review Letters, 109 (2012), 16500
  • J.A. Heikkinen,  S.J. Janhunen, T.P. Kiviniemi and F. Ogando, “Full f gyrokinetic method for particle simulation of tokamak transport”, Journal of Computational Physics 227 (2008), 5582.
  • T. Korpilo, J.A. Heikkinen, S.J. Janhunen, T.P. Kiviniemi, S. Leerink, F. Ogando,”Numerically stable method for kinetic electrons in gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulation of toroidal plasmas”, Journal of Computational Physics 239 (2013), 22.
  • E.Z. Gusakov, A.B. Altukhov, V.V. Bulanin, A.D. Gurchenko, J.A. Heikkinen, S.J. Janhunen, S. Leerink, L.A. Esipov, M. Yu Kantor, T.P. Kiviniemi, T. Korpilo, D.V. Kouprienko, S.I. Lashkul, A.V.
    Petrov and N.V. Teplova, “Anomalous transport and multi-scale drift turbulence dynamics in tokamak ohmic discharge as measured by high resolution diagnostics and modeled by full-f gyrokinetic code”,
    Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 55 (2013), 124034.
  • T.P. Kiviniemi, S. Leerink, J.A. Heikkinen, S.J. Janhunen, T. Korpilo, “Gyrokinetic Simulations of the Edge Pedestal in the TEXTOR Tokamak”, Contributions to Plasma Physics, 52 (2012), 406.
  • J.A. Heikkinen, M. Nora, Physics of Plasmas, “Gyrokinetic equations and full f solution method based on Dirac’s constrained Hamiltonian and inverse Kruskal iteration”, 18 (2011), 022310.
  • J.A. Heikkinen, T. Korpilo, S.J. Janhunen, T.P. Kiviniemi, S. Leerink, F. Ogando,  “Interpolation for momentum conservation in 3D toroidal gyrokinetic particle simulation of plasmas”, Computer Physics Communications, 183 (2012), 1719.
  • S. Janhunen, J.A. Heikkinen, T. Korpilo, S. Leerink, M. Nora, and F. Ogando, “Recent advances in gyrokinetic full-f particle simulation of medium sized tokamaks with ELMFIRE”, Contributions to Plasma Physics, 50 (2010), 252.
  • S. Leerink, V.V. Bulanin, E.Z. Gusakov, J.A. Heikkinen, S.J. Janhunen, T.P. Kiviniemi, T. Korpilo, M. Nora, and F. Ogando, “Synthetic Doppler Reflectometer Diagnostic for nonlinear global gyrokinetic simulations”, Contributions to Plasma Physics, 50 (2010), 242
  • G. Falchetto, B. Scott, P. Angelino, A. Bottino, T. Dannert, V. Grandgirard, S.Janhunen, F.Jenko, S. Jolliet, A. Kendl, B. McMillan, V. Naulin, A.H. Nielsen, M. Ottaviani, A. Peeters, “The European turbulence code benchmarking effort: turbulence driven by thermal gradients in magnetically confined plasmas”, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 50 (2008) 1-12.
  • S.J. Janhunen, F. Ogando, J.A. Heikkinen, T.P. Kiviniemi, and S. Leerink, “Collisional dynamics of Er in turbulent plasmas in toroidal geometry”, Nuclear Fusion 47 (2007), 875.