The Nanomaterials group has a wide range of experimental facilities for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes and for their characterization as well as for developing pharmaceutical inhalation products.

Aerosol reactors for drug delivery systems

The Nanomaterials Group has developed the Aerosol Flow Reactor Method to formulate nano- and microparticles for pharmaceutical applications. The aerosol method enables formulating materials with different solubilities and thermal properties as novel platforms for controlled drug delivery, non-viral vectors for gene therapy and carrier-free drug powders for inhalation therapy.

Current focus areas

  • Next generation pulmonary delivery of therapeutic peptides
  • Efficient pulmonary delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs
  • Coating and encapsulation of combination drugs for pulmonary delivery

Aerosol flow reactor

Solutions where materials are dissolved are dispersed into droplets which are carried to the aerosol reactor with a gas. The particles are dried in a laminar flow followed by the coating process. Dry particles are collected by a cyclone or impactor. The general features of the aerosol reactor are listed below.

  • Jet atomizer: droplet size 300 nm, production 104-105 1/cm3
  • Ultrasonic nebulizer: droplet size 3-4 µm, production 105-106 1/cm3
  • Temperature 20-300 ºC, flow rate 1-20 l/min
  • Solvent options are many, however, no solvent mixtures are recommended

Carbon nanotube reactors

The Nanomaterials Group operates five carbon nanotube reactors based on the aerosol-based synthesis technique.


Diverse equipment


  • Sigma Laborzentrifugen 3k30 centrifuge

Cleaning units

  • Elma Emasonic P ultrasonic cleaning unit

  • VWR ultrasonic cleaning bath

Conductivity measurements

  • Jandel cylindrical four point probe head (× 2)

  • Jandel Model RM3000 test unit: combined constant current source and digital voltmeter designed specifically for the four point probe measurement

  • Jandel manual four point probe stand

Gas flow meters and controllers

  • Aalborg MFC mass flow controller command module

  • Aelita MFC mass flow controller command module

  • Bubble-o-meter Bubble Meter 2 ml for very low gas flow measurements

  • Delta OHM micromanometer, digital differential pressure and air flow meter

  • Fluke 922 Airflow meter

  • Gilian Bubble generator high flow for measuring high gas flow

  • Gilian Bubble generator low flow for measuring low gas flow

  • Gilian Gilibrator2 primary flow calibrator

  • Mascot SEE 60-08TE pressure meter and flow control

  • Oldham Toximetre TxII CO warning meter

  • TSI Flow meter model 307100 air flow meter


  • Fritsch Pulverisette 7 pulverizer / grinder


  • Agilent Technologies 33216A 10 MHz / Arbitrary waveform generator

  • Gentrad DR07 decade resistor box

  • Rohde & Schwarz ZVCE vector network analyser

  • Tabor electronics 9100 high-voltage wideband amplifier


  • Thermolyne 48000 furnace

  • Meyer-vastus 1209 power source and tube furnace

  • WTC binder large scale furnace

Laser diodes and lamp controllers

  • Mituoyo Lamplink fiber optic lamp light source illuminator

  • Thorlab TCLDM9 laser diode, mount and controllers


  • CH instruments scanning electrochemical microscope

  • Motic ST39 series optical microscope

Multimeters and oscilloscopes

  • Fluke 87V true RMS multimeter

  • Hewlett Packard 3458A multimeter

  • Tektronix MDO 3014 mixed domain oscilloscope

Particle counters and classifiers

  • Dekati ELPI particle size distribution meter

  • Grimm model 5414 condensation particle counter

  • Grimm DMA 55-U electrostatic particle classifier

  • Grimm DMA model 5.710 electrostatic particle classifier

  • Labtronic condensation particle counter

  • TSI model 3775 condensation particle counter

  • VTT aerosol technology group Model 3027 ultrafine condensation particle counter

pH meters

  • Mettler Toledo SevenEasy pH meter

Power supplies

  • Agilent Technologies E3633A DC power supply (× 2)

  • Heinzinger LNC 10000-5 pos power supply

  • Hewlett Packard 6634B power supply

  • Protek 3003B DC power suppy

  • Thandar TS3022S precision DC power supply

  • Velleman PSS-4005 power supply

Pressure gauges

  • Ashcroft digital test gauge

  • Magnehelic differential pressure meter for small pressure differences

  • Swagelok pressure gauges


  • Watson Marlew Bredel pump

Semiconductor analysers and probe stations

  • Agilent Technologies B1500A semiconductor analyser

  • Agilent Technologies 4156B precision semiconductor parameter analyser

  • KarlSuss PA200 2F10 13 probe station

Thermometers and heatplates

  • Fluke 51 II thermometer

  • Heidolph MR Hei-standard magnetic stirrer and heatplate (× 4)

  • IKA C-MAG H57 magnetic stirrer and heatplate

  • Thermo Scientific Variomag Poly 15 large scale magnetic stirrer and heatplate

  • VWR VMS-C9 magnetic stirrer and heatplate

Vacuum pumps

  • Hanning Elektro-Werke Trivac E2 rotary vane vacuum pump

Voltammetric measurements

  • Metrohm 663 VA stand mercury drop electrode system

Weighing scales

  • Kern PCB 3500-2 precision balance

  • Mettler AT261 Delta Range analytical balance

  • Radwag AS 101.R2 analytical balance

Page content by: communications-phys [at] aalto [dot] fi (Department of Physics) | Last updated: 08.04.2016.