Group leader: Timo Kiviniemi

Postdoctoral researchers: Laurent Chôné, Susan Leerink and Ronan Rochford

PhD students: Paavo Niskala



  •   full-radius simulations of axisymmetric plasmas with limiter scrape-off layer
  •   full fe, full fi → allows significant changes in plasma profiles during simulation
  •   drift-kinetic electrons and gyrokinetic ions – one impurity species can be included
  •   circular concentric magnetic background
  •   3D electrostatic potential from nonlinear polarization and electron parallel nonlinearity via direct implicit method
  •   collisions are evaluated using a binary collision model → neo-classical physics included
  •   guiding centre equations and simulation grid in straight-field-line coordinates
  •   analytic neutral model
  •   radiation losses can be included
  •   temperature can be maintained or heated up with background collisions
  •   benchmarked against Cyclone base case, neoclassical properties, and FT-2 experiments




Doctoral dissertations



  • T. Korpilo, T.P. Kiviniemi, S. Leerink, P. Niskala and R. Rochford, "Gyrokinetic Simulations of the Tokamak Plasma Edge in Circular Limiter Configuration". Contributions to Plasma Physics 56 (2016) 549.
  • T. Korpilo, A.D. Gurchenko, E.Z. Gusakov, J.A. Heikkinen, S.J. Janhunen, T.P. Kiviniemi, S. Leerink, P. Niskala and A.A. Perevalov, "Gyrokinetic full-torus simulations of ohmic tokamak plasmas in circular limiter configuration". Computer Physics Communications 203 (2016) 128.
  • A. Gurchenko, E. Gusakov, P. Niskala, A. Altukhov, L. Esipov, T. Kiviniemi, T. Korpilo, D. Kouprienko, S. Lashkul, S. Leerink, A. Perevalov and M. Irzak, ”The isotope effect in turbulent transport control by GAMs. Observation and gyrokinetic modeling.” Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 58 (2016) 044002.
  • P. Niskala, T.P. Kiviniemi, S. Leerink and T. Korpilo, ”Gyrokinetic simulations of interplay between geodesic acoustic modes and trapped electron mode turbulence”. Nuclear Fusion 55 (2015) 073012.
  • A.D. Gurchenko, E.Z. Gusakov, P. Niskala, A.B. Altukhov, L.A. Esipov, T.P. Kiviniemi, D.V. Kouprienko, M.Yu. Kantor, S.I. Lashkul, S. Leerink, A.A. Perevalov and T. Korpilo, ”Turbulence and anomalous tokamak transport control by Geodesic Acoustic Mode”. European Physical Letters 110 (2015) 55001.
  • T.P. Kiviniemi, S. Leerink, P. Niskala, J.A. Heikkinen, T. Korpilo and S. Janhunen, "Comparison of gyrokinetic simulation of parallel plasma conductivity to analytical models". Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 56 (2014) 075009.
  • T. Korpilo, J.A. Heikkinen, S.J. Janhunen, T.P. Kiviniemi, S. Leerink and F. Ogando, ”Numerically stable method for kinetic electrons in gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulation of toroidal plasmas”. Journal of Computational Physics 239 (2013) 22.
  • E.Z. Gusakov, A.B. Altukhov, V.V. Bulanin, A.D. Gurchenko, J.A. Heikkinen, S.J. Janhunen, S. Leerink, L.A. Esipov, M. Yu Kantor, T.P. Kiviniemi, T. Korpilo, D.V. Kouprienko, S.I. Lashkul, A.V. Petrov and N.V. Teplova, “Anomalous transport and multi-scale drift turbulence dynamics in tokamak ohmic discharge as measured by high resolution diagnostics and modeled by full-f gyrokinetic code”. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 55 (2013) 124034.
  • S. Leerink, V.V. Bulanin, A.D. Gurchenko, E.Z. Gusakov, J.A. Heikkinen, S.J. Janhunen, S.I. Lashkul, A.B. Altukhov, L.A. Esipov, M. Yu. Kantor, T.P. Kiviniemi, T. Korpilo, D.V. Kuprienko and A.V. Petrov, “Multiscale Investigations of Drift-Wave Turbulence and Plasma Flows: Measurements and Total-Distribution-Function Gyrokinetic Simulations”. Physical Review Letters 1​09 (2012) 16500.
  • J.A. Heikkinen, T. Korpilo, S.J. Janhunen, T.P. Kiviniemi, S. Leerink and F. Ogando,  “Interpolation for momentum conservation in 3D toroidal gyrokinetic particle simulation of plasmas”. Computer Physics Communications 183 (2012) 1719.
  • T.P. Kiviniemi, S. Leerink, J.A. Heikkinen, S.J. Janhunen and T. Korpilo, “Gyrokinetic Simulations of the Edge Pedestal in the TEXTOR Tokamak”, Contributions to Plasma Physics 52 (2012) 406.
  • J.A. Heikkinen, M. Nora, Physics of Plasmas, “Gyrokinetic equations and full f solution method based on Dirac’s constrained Hamiltonian and inverse Kruskal iteration”. Physics of Plasmas 18 (2011) 022310.
  • S. Janhunen, J.A. Heikkinen, T. Korpilo, S. Leerink, M. Nora and F. Ogando, “Recent advances in gyrokinetic full-f particle simulation of medium sized tokamaks with ELMFIRE”. Contributions to Plasma Physics 50 (2010) 252.
  • S. Leerink, V.V. Bulanin, E.Z. Gusakov, J.A. Heikkinen, S.J. Janhunen, T.P. Kiviniemi, T. Korpilo, M. Nora and F. Ogando, “Synthetic Doppler Reflectometer Diagnostic for nonlinear global gyrokinetic simulations”. Contributions to Plasma Physics 50 (2010) 242.
  • J.A. Heikkinen,  S.J. Janhunen, T.P. Kiviniemi and F. Ogando, “Full f gyrokinetic method for particle simulation of tokamak transport”. Journal of Computational Physics 227 (2008) 5582.
  • G. Falchetto, B. Scott, P. Angelino, A. Bottino, T. Dannert, V. Grandgirard, S.Janhunen, F.Jenko, S. Jolliet, A. Kendl, B. McMillan, V. Naulin, A.H. Nielsen, M. Ottaviani and A. Peeters, “The European turbulence code benchmarking effort: turbulence driven by thermal gradients in magnetically confined plasmas”. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 50 (2008) 1-12.
  • S.J. Janhunen, F. Ogando, J.A. Heikkinen, T.P. Kiviniemi and S. Leerink, “Collisional dynamics of Er in turbulent plasmas in toroidal geometry”. Nuclear Fusion 47 (2007) 875.

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